In elucidating the


Standard chemical mutagenesis of the organism has had only limited success, in part because chlamydiae cannot be grown axenically to support the normal methods of producing clonal populations of mutants.Development of a system for genetic manipulation of the organism thus has been a major goal for decades in the has been that getting modifying nucleic acid constructs to the organisms required that they be inserted somehow into the metabolically inactive extracellular form of the organism, the elementary body, through its extremely durable cell wall, or into metabolically active chlamydiae within host cytoplasmic inclusions; this latter route involves the daunting task of getting any modifying construct across the eukaryotic host cell membrane, the inclusion membrane, and finally across the membrane and minimal cell wall of the metabolically active form of , the reticulate body.More recently, it has been shown that mitochondria in most tumors are not defective in their ability to carry out oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS).Instead, in highly aggressive cancer cells, mitochondrial energy pathways are reprogrammed to meet the challenges of high energy demand, better utilization of available fuels and macromolecular synthesis for rapid cell division and migration.The steady state corresponding to various initial conditions can be identified following the arrows.



In addition, neoplastic mitochondria can engage in crosstalk with the tumor microenvironment.

Availability of these regulators can be modulated by various mitochondrial properties including, mt DNA mutations, TCA activity, ETC function, and mitochondrial membrane potential.



In elucidating the comments


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