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2006; Clutton-Brock 2009, 2010; Roughgarden and Akçay 2010; Shuker 2010).The first point concerns the contrast between competition for mates and competition for resources.In recent years, behavioral ecologists have shown increased interest in sexual selection in females (Heinsohn et al.2005; Lebas 2006; Clutton-Brock 2007, 2009; Watson and Simmons 2010), focusing especially on the phenotypic variation in and functional significance of female ornamentation (Amundsen 2000; Amundsen and Parn 2006; Kraaijeveld et al.I make predictions about patterns of female–female competition to discern how and why females compete.Based on the relative support for these predictions, I address how intrasexual competition may differ between the sexes, in function, outcome, and mechanism of selection, and I suggest clear directions for future research on the nature of intrasexual competition and sexual selection in both sexes.Shuker’s definition is therefore especially useful for addressing similarities and differences in intrasexual selection in the 2 sexes, while allowing for sex differences in the nature of this competition.I will address 2 points about this definition that are particularly relevant to sexual selection in females and leave the details of the current and historical debates over sexual selection to a handful of thoughtful reviews (Endler 1986; Andersson 1994; Kavanagh 2006; Roughgarden et al.

As a consequence, the frequency and intensity of exaggerated traits and behaviors tend to be greater in males than in females.When females exhibit versions of these traits, their evolutionary significance has proven to be enigmatic.Are these traits nonfunctional by-products of a genetic correlation with males (Lande 1980)?Under this view, if a trait influences competition for mates, then this trait is sexually selected.

Therefore, sexual selection encompasses a rather broad array of processes, such as competition for the number or quality of mates as well as competition for resources that directly influence the probability of mating.

Moreover, female–female aggression has been widely studied in a range of natural and experimental conditions across the animal kingdom, but these data have not yet been synthesized to uncover the evolutionary mechanisms promoting competition among females.